Relays and The Bolshoi Theatre IELTS Reading General
Reading Passage – 2
A relay is an electrically operated switch. It consists of a set of input terminals for a single or multiple control signals, and a set of operating contact terminals. The switch may have any number of contacts in multiple contact forms, such as make contacts, break contacts, or combinations thereof. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by an independent low-power signal, or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal. Relays were first used in long-distance telegraph circuits as signal repeaters: they refresh the signal coming in from one circuit before transmitting it on another circuit. Relays were used extensively in telephone exchanges and early computers to perform logical operations. The traditional form of a relay uses an electromagnet to close or open the contacts, but other operating principles have been invented, such as in solid-state relays which use semiconductor properties for control without relying on moving parts. Relays with calibrated operating characteristics and sometimes multiple operating coils are used to protect electrical circuits from overload or faults; in modern electric power systems these functions are performed by digital instruments still called protective relays.
Latching relays require only a single pulse of control power to operate the switch persistently. Another pulse applied to a second set of control terminals, or a pulse with opposite polarity, resets the switch, while repeated pulses of the same kind have no effects. Magnetic latching relays are useful in applications when interrupted power should not affect the circuits that the relay is controlling. A simple electromagnetic relay consists of a coil of wire wrapped around a soft iron core (a solenoid), an iron yoke which provides a low reluctance path for magnetic flux, a movable iron armature, and one or more sets of contacts. The armature is hinged to the yoke and mechanically linked to one or more sets of moving contacts. The armature is held in place by a spring so that when the relay is de-energized there is an air gap in the magnetic circuit. This ensures continuity of the circuit between the moving contacts on the armature, and the circuit track on the printed circuit board (PCB) via the yoke, which is soldered to the PCB. When an electric current is passed through the coil it generates a magnetic field that activates the armature, and the consequent movement of the movable contacts either makes or breaks (depending upon construction) a connection with a fixed contact. ielts -reading
If the set f contacts was closed when the relay was de-energized, then the movement opens the contacts and breaks the connection, and vice versa if the contacts were open. When the current to the coil is switched off, the armature is returned by a force, approximately half as strong as the magnetic force, to its relaxed position. Usually, this force is provided by a spring, but gravity is also used commonly in industrial motor starters. Most relays are manufactured to operate quickly. In a low-voltage application this reduces noise; in a high voltage or current application it reduces arcing. When the coil is energized with direct current, a diode or resistor is often placed across the coil to dissipate the energy from the collapsing magnetic field at deactivation, which would otherwise generate a voltage spike dangerous to semiconductor circuit components. Such diodes were not widely used before the application of transistors as relay drivers, but soon became ubiquitous as early germanium transistors were easily destroyed by this surge. Some automotive relays include a diode inside the relay case. Resistors while more durable than diodes, are less efficient at eliminating voltage spikes generated by relays and therefore not as commonly used.
Complete the fill ups below.
Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS and/or numbers for each answer.
15. When various circuits are to be managed by a sole signal, _______________ are used.
16. The signal repeaters revive the indication approaching from one circuit by _______________ it on alternative circuit.
17. Relays with semiconductor properties does not come with
18. A common electromagnetic relay comprises a loop of cable draped all over a _______________
19. When an electric current is delivered via the coil it produces a _______________ that stimulates the armature.
20. When no current passes through the coil, the armature comes back to _______________
21. A _______________ is generally positioned crossways to the coil to scatter the energy from the disintegrating magnetic field at deactivation. IELTS-Reading.com
Read the text below and answer question 22 to 26.
The Bolshoi Theatre
A. The Bolshoi Theatre is a historic theater in Moscow, Russia, originally designed by architect Joseph Bove, which holds Ballet and opera performances. Before the October Revolution it was a part of the imperial Theatres of the Russian Empire along with Maly Theatre (Small Theatre) in Moscow and a tew theaters in Saint Petersburg (Hermitage Theatre, Bolshoi (Kamenny) Theater, later Mariinsky Theatre, and others). The Bolshoi Ballet and Bolshoi Opera are amongst the aged and most renowned ballet and opera companies in the world. It Is by far the world’s biggest ballet company, with more than 200 dancers. The theatre is the parent company of The Bolshoi Ballet Academy, a world- famous leading School of ballet. It has a branch at the Bolshoi Theatre School in Joinville, Brazil.
B. The main building of the theatre, rebuilt and renovated several times during its history, is a landmark of Moscow and Russia (its iconic neoclassical façade is depicted on the Russian 100-ruble banknote). On 28 October 2011, the Bolshoi re-opened after an extensive six-year renovation. The certified cost of the renovation is 21 billion rubles ($688million). However, other Russian authorities and other people connected to it claimed much more public money was spent. The renovation included restoring acoustics to the original quality (which had been lost during the Soviet Era), as well as restoring the original Imperial decor of the Bolshoi.
C. The company was founded on 28 March 1776, when Catherine ll granted Prince Peter Urusov a licence to organise theatrical performances, balls, and other forms of entertainment. Urusov set up the theatre in collaboration with English tightrope walker Michael Maddox. Initially, it held performances in a private home, but it acquired the Petrovka Theatre and on 30 December 1780, it began producing plays and operas, thus establishing what would become the Bolshoi Theatre. Fire destroyed the Petrovka Theatre on 8 October 1805, and the New Arbat Imperial Theatre replaced it on 13 April 1808, however it also succumbed to fire during the French invasion of Moscow in 1812. ielts-reading
D. The first instance of the theatre was built between 1821 and 1824, designed and supervised to completion by architect Joseph Bové based upon an initial competition winning design created by Petersburg-based Russian architect Andrei Mikhailov that was deemed too costly to complete. Bové also concurrently designed the nearby Maly Theatre and the surrounding Theater Square, the new building opened on 18 January 1825 as the Bolshoi Petrovsky Theatre with a performance of Fernando Sor’s ballet, Cendrllon. Initially, it presented only Russian works, but foreign composers entered the repertoire around 1840. In 1843 a large-scale reconstruction of the theatre took place using a design by A. Nikitinanda further reconstruction was carried out, by Alberto Cavos son of the opera composer Catterino Cavos. On 20 August 1856, the Bolshoi Theatre reopened. Other repairs of the building took place in 1896.
E. On 7 December 1919, the house was renamed the State Academic Bolshoi Theatre. Only a few days later, however, on 12 December, there was an unsuccessful attempt to shut the institution entirely. Beethoven Hall opened on 18 February 1921. A bomb damaged the structure during World War l1, but this was quickly repaired. A new stage for the Bolshoi Theatre, called the New Stage, went into service on 29 November 2002, constructed to the left of the theatre’s historic main stage. Together with auxiliary buildings, a restored 17th-century building, two rehearsal halls, and artists’ recreation rooms, it forms a single theatre complex, the Bolshoi Theatre of Russia. The new building is on a natural hill which it shared, until recently, blocks of old houses with communal apartments
Choose the correct heading for the given sections from the list of headings below.
Write the correct number in the answer sheet.
List of Headings
i. World war II destroyed many structures around the world.
ii. Two auditoriums demolished due to fire.
iii. Prompt refurbishment of different parts of theatre after a conflict.
iv. Re constructing the Bolshoi theatre using better techniques and building material.
v. Some establishments alleged that exaggerated community funds were disbursed on reconditioning the theatre than what official figures suggested.
vi. Restoration of theatre in different eras
vii. Russian dance form that distinguishes from other countries.
viii. The most prestigious and oldest dance establishment in the world
22. Paragraph A
23. Paragraph B
24. Paragraph C
25. Paragraph D
26. Paragraph E
Relays IELTS Reading Answers
17. MOVING PARTS
18. SOFT IRON CORE OR SOLENOID
19. MAGNETIC FIELD
20. RELAXED POSITION
21. DIODE OR RESISTOR