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Types of Cameras IELTS Reading Academic

Types of Cameras IELTS Reading Academic

Reading Passage 3

Types of Cameras

A. Plate camera

The earliest cameras formed in substantial numbers used sensitised glass plates were plate cameras. Light entered a lens mounted on a lens board which was detached from the plate by an extendible bellows. There were simple box cameras for glass plates but also single-lens reflex cameras with identical lenses and even for colour photography. Many of these cameras had controls to increase or decrease the lens and to slope it onwards or backwards to control perspective. Converging of these plate cameras was using a ground glass screen at the point of focus.

Because lens design only allowed rather small aperture lenses, the image on the ground glass screen was pale and most photographers had a dark cloth to shelter their heads to allow focussing and configuration to be passed out more easily. When focus and composition were acceptable, the ground glass screen was detached, and a sensitised plate put in its place protected by a dark slide.

To make the exposure, the dark slide was sensibly slid out and the shutter unbolted and then closed, and the dark slide substituted. Glass plates were later substituted by sheet film in a dark slide for sheet film; adaptor sleeves were made to let sheet film to be used in plate holders. In addition to the ground glass, a simple optical viewfinder was often fitted.

B. Twin-lens reflex camera

Twin-lens reflex cameras used a couple of nearly matching lenses, one to form the image and one as a viewfinder. The lenses were organized with the viewing lens closely above the taking lens. The viewing lens projects an image onto a viewing screen which can be seen from above. Some manufacturers such as Mamiya also provided a reflex head to attach to the viewing screen to allow the camera to be held to the eye when in use.

The benefit of a TLR was that it could be easily focussed using the viewing screen and that under most conditions the view seen in the viewing screen was undistinguishable to that recorded on film. At close distances however, parallax errors were met, and some cameras also comprised a pointer to show what part of the configuration would be omitted. Some TLR had substitutable lenses but as these had to be paired lenses, they were comparatively heavy and did not provide the range of focal lengths that the SLR could support. Most TLRs used 120 or 220 films; some used the smaller 127 films. []

C. Instant camera

After exposure every photograph is taken through pinch rollers inside of the immediate camera. Thereby the developer paste contained in the paper ‘sandwich’ allocates on the image. After a minute, the cover sheet just needs to be detached and one gets a single original positive image with a static format. With some systems it was also probable to generate an instant image negative, from which then could be made copies in the photo lab. ielts-reading

The final development was the SX-70 system of Polaroid, in which a row of ten shots -engine driven – could be made without having to remove any cover sheets from the picture. There were instant cameras for a variety of formats, as well as adapters for instant film use in medium- and large-format cameras.

D. Sub miniature camera

Cameras taking film pointedly smaller than 35 mm were made. Sub miniature cameras were first formed in the nineteenth century. The expensive 8×11 mm Minox, the only type of camera formed by the company from 1937 to 1976, became very extensively known and was often used for espionage (the Minox company later also produced larger cameras). Later cheap sub miniatures were made for general use, some using rewound 16 mm cine film. Image quality with these small film sizes was restricted.

E. Collapsible camera

The overview of films permitted the current designs for plate cameras to be made much smaller and for the baseplate to be hinged so that it could be pleated up squeezing the bellows. These designs were very condensed and small models were dubbed vest pocket cameras. Folding roll film cameras were headed by folding plate cameras, more Compact than other designs. These cameras were one of the most compact cameras. ielts-reading

F. Box Camera

Box cameras were presented as a budget level camera and had limited if any controls. The original box Brownie models had a small reflex viewfinder mounted on the top of the camera and had no aperture or focusing controls and just a simple shutter. Later models Such as the Brownie 127 had larger direct view optical viewfinders together with a curved film path to decrease the impact of deficits in the lens.

G. Range finder camera

As camera a lens technology established, and wide aperture lenses became more common, rangefinder cameras were presented to make converging more detailed. Early rangefinders had two distinct viewfinder windows, one of which is related to the focusing mechanisms and moved right or left as the focusing ring is twisted. The two distinct images are brought together on a ground glass viewing screen. When vertical lines in the object being photographed meet precisely in the combined image, the object is in focus.

A normal composition viewfinder is also provided. Later the viewfinder and rangefinder were combined. Many rangefinder cameras had interchangeable lenses, each lens requiring its own range- and viewfinder linkages. Rangefinder cameras were formed in half- and full-frame 35 mm and roll film (medium format). []

Questions 27 – 40
Which of the following characteristics match the camera type?
Write A -G in your answer sheets.
NOTE: You may use a letter more than once.

27. Glass plates were formerly used in these categories of cameras.
28. Image superiority was compromised due to the insignificant dimension of the film.
29. Compact cameras as it could be crumpled and made to pocket size.
30. Glass plates were later swapped by sheet film in a shady slide.
31. These cameras were made to cover more niceties in the image.
32. A low-priced camera with limited panels.
33. Two images amalgamated together using a special kind of feature.
34. Two lenses used synchronously in a camera.
35. A camera that prints a negative image promptly.
36. Cumbersome lenses with less range.
37. The lens of this camera could be slanted to manage viewpoint. []
38. A highly transportable camera.
39. These cameras took image films were slender than 35 mm.
40. You get solitary positive image with a motionless format.

Types of Camera IELTS Reading Answers

27. A

28. D

29. E

30. A

31. G

32. F

33. G

34. B

35. C

36. B

37. A

38. E

39. D

40. C

Also Check: 3D Printer IELTS Reading Academic with Answers

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