Lunar Cycles and Sleep IELTS Reading General
Reading Passage 2
Lunar Cycles and Sleep
A. Sleep specialist Professor Wiseman recently set out to determine if sound could affect dream content. However, he also ended up uncovering an uncanny correlation between lunar cycles and sleep processes.
B. Volunteers in his study were played a variety of sounds ranging from bird song to traffic. If sensors detected the subject was sleeping, shortly before the alarm was set to go off, the sounds were played. The reasoning behind this was that sleepers recall dreams more accurately just after waking and so would still remember sound-induced dreams.
C. Whilst the content of dreams was found to remain constant with the seasons or the days of the week, it showed considerable variation with the full moon. Dreams became increasingly bizarre, bearing little relation to the usual pedestrian dreams we normally have about being late for work or losing personal items. In some cases, subjects became superheroes such as Batman or Superman.
D. The findings build on research that had previously demonstrated a link between lunar cycles and duration and quality of sleep rather than content. These earlier findings revealed a more fitful sleep in subjects during the full moon and difficulty initially falling asleep.
E. Biologically, an inability to sleep soundly during a full moon is probably attributable to low levels of the sleep hormone melatonin. The waxing and waning of the moon can directly affect melatonin levels and hence sleep quality.
F. Wiseman believes that the evolutionary advantage conferred on our predecessors by such sensitivity to lunar rhythms was incalculable. Sleeping lightly at the full moon would have heightened our awareness to predators. In addition, a full moon may have been the optimum conditions for our ancestors to go hunting by. This accounts for the lunar influence on our sleeping habits today.
G. Sensitivity to the moon’s rhythms and concurrent lack of good quality sleep is likely, however, to be seen as a source of irritation to most. This is because contemporary Man is unlikely to derive the same benefit from moon-induced sleep changes compared to his ancestors.
The text on the next page has seven sections, A-G. Choose the correct heading for each section from the list of headings below. Write the correct number, i-x, in boxes 15-21 on your answer sheet.
List of Headings
i A previously proven correlation
ii An unwelcome inheritance
iii Old habits die hard
iv A modern advantage
v A departure from the mundane
vi A physical interaction
vii An unexpected finding
viii Fantasies become reality
ix A theory is disproved
x Theory is put into practice
15. Section A
16. Section B
17. Section C
18. Section D
19. Section E
20. Section F
21. Section G
Read the text below and answer Questions 22-28.
Different ways to exercise and get healthy
As the pounds pile on we may become more complacent about keeping fit. However there is a lot at stake if you resign yourself to an indolent lifestyle. Cosmetic concerns as to increasing girths and flabby abdomens aside, there is also your health to consider. Many diseases such as Type 2 diabetes and cancer arise from obesity and an unhealthy lifestyle. So here are some suggestions to kick start your exercise regime, focusing on body-specific areas that you might wish to improve upon.
If you are seeking to improve stamina and cardiovascular fitness, then interval training is a good way to start. Activities are completed at high intensity for a specific length of time, followed by another cycle of low intensity exercises termed ‘sets’ which are repeated throughout the routine.
For those desiring speedy results and wanting to simultaneously boost overall fitness levels, then practising squats is the answer. Squats not only help burn fat but also build muscle strength and aid suppleness throughout the entire body, which in turn helps prevent injuries. Performing this exercise that is heavily focused on working the muscles along the hips and upper thighs can help streamline your body.
Lunges are another ideal choice for toning and building thigh muscles. They are also regarded by fitness experts as one of the best functional activities during which the body is exercised through multiple planes of motion. Because the entire body is involved, lunges are a great exercise choice for hectic days as they offer multiple benefits within a short time frame. If your focus is more on improving your chest and torso then you would be better off doing push ups. In addition to working on the chest and torso, push ups also help define the shoulders, triceps and oblique muscles.
If increasing body bulk takes precedence over improving fitness levels and general mobility, then weight training is for you. This activity aims to develop the size and strength of the skeletal muscles by using weight stacks, dumbbells and weighted bars to create gravity resistance, thereby increasing muscle mass. Since individual target goals will vary with regard to what muscle groups need to be developed, weight training programmes need to be adjusted to the individual concerned.
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the text for each answer.
There is too much 22________ if you fail to keep to a healthy fitness regime. 23_________ apart, there is also the matter of your health to think about.
Look at the following descriptions and the list of terms in the box below.
Match each description with the correct term, A-E.
Write the appropriate letter, A-E, in boxes 24-28 on your answer sheet.
List of Descriptions
24. Works on the upper body only
25. Requires the individual to follow a tailor-made programme
26. High impact exercises are interspersed with low impact ones.
27. General mobility is improved in addition to fitness levels and overall appearance.
28. A workout simultaneously affecting several areas of main body
A. Interval training
D. Push ups
E. Weight training
Lunar Cycles and Sleep IELTS Reading Answers
22. AT STAKE
23. COSMETIC CONCERNS